The Sulfated Triphenyl Methane Derivative Acid Fuchsin Is a Potent Inhibitor of Amyloid Formation by Human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide and Protects against the Toxic Effects of Amyloid Formation

TitleThe Sulfated Triphenyl Methane Derivative Acid Fuchsin Is a Potent Inhibitor of Amyloid Formation by Human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide and Protects against the Toxic Effects of Amyloid Formation
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2010
AuthorsMeng F, Abedini A, Plesner A, Middleton CT, Potter KJ, Zanni MT, C. Verchere B, Raleigh DP
Secondary TitleJournal of Molecular Biology
Volume400
Issue3
Pagination555 - 566
Date Published07/2010
Abstract

Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), also known as amylin, is responsible for amyloid formation in type 2 diabetes. The formation of islet amyloid is believed to contribute to the pathology of the disease by killing β-cells, and it may also contribute to islet transplant failure. The design of inhibitors of amyloid formation is an active area of research, but comparatively little attention has been paid to inhibitors of IAPP in contrast to the large body of work on β-amyloid, and most small-molecule inhibitors of IAPP amyloid are generally effective only when used at a significant molar excess. Here we show that the simple sulfonated triphenyl methane derivative acid fuchsin, 3-(1-(4-amino-3-methyl-5-sulfonatophenyl)-1-(4-amino-3-sulfonatophenyl) methylene) cyclohexa-1,4-dienesulfonic acid, is a potent inhibitor of in vitro amyloid formation by IAPP at substoichiometric levels and protects cultured rat INS-1 cells against the toxic effects of human IAPP. Fluorescence-detected thioflavin-T binding assays, light-scattering, circular dichroism, two-dimensional IR, and transmission electron microscopy measurements confirm that the compound prevents amyloid fibril formation. Ionic-strength-dependent studies show that the effects are mediated in part by electrostatic interactions. Experiments in which the compound is added at different time points during the lag phase after amyloid formation has commenced reveal that it arrests amyloid formation by trapping intermediate species. The compound is less effective against the β-amyloid peptide, indicating specificity in its ability to inhibit amyloid formation by IAPP. The work reported here provides a new structural class of IAPP amyloid inhibitors and demonstrates the power of two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy for characterizing amyloid inhibitor interactions.

URLhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20452363
DOI10.1016/j.jmb.2010.05.001.
Short TitleJournal of Molecular Biology